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In this example, 'local' is the name of the environment and 'your-machine-name' is the hostname of your server. On Linux and Mac, you may determine your hostname using the hostname terminal command.

If you need more flexible environment detection, you may pass a Closure to the detectEnvironment method, allowing you to implement environment detection however you wish:

You may access the current application environment via the environment method:

You may also pass arguments to the environment method to check if the environment matches a given value:

When using environment configuration, you may want to "append" environment service providers to your primary app configuration file. However, if you try this, you will notice the environment app providers are overriding the providers in your primary app configuration file. To force the providers to be appended, use the append_config helper method in your environment app configuration file:

For "real" applications, it is advisable to keep all of your sensitive configuration out of your configuration files. Things such as database passwords, Stripe API keys, and encryption keys should be kept out of your configuration files whenever possible. So, where should we place them? Thankfully, Laravel provides a very simple solution to protecting these types of configuration items using "dot" files.

First, configure your application to recognize your machine as being in the local environment. Next, create a . env . local . php file within the root of your project, which is usually the same directory that contains your composer . json file. The . env . local . php should return an array of key-value pairs, much like a typical Laravel configuration file:

All of the key-value pairs returned by this file will automatically be available via the $_ENV and $_SERVER PHP "superglobals". You may now reference these globals from within your configuration files:

Be sure to add the . env . local . php file to your . gitignore file. This will allow other developers on your team to create their own local environment configuration, as well as hide your sensitive configuration items from source control.

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Eli Dourado
Head of global policy and communications at Boom.

One of the criticisms leveled at Bitcoin by those people determined to hate it is that Bitcoin transactions are irreversible. If I buy goods from an anonymous counterparty online, what’s to stop them from taking my bitcoins and simply not sending me the goods? When I buy goods online using Visa or American Express, if the goods never arrive, or if they aren’t what was advertised, I can complain to the credit card company. The company will do a cursory investigation, and if they find that I was indeed likely ripped off, they will refund me my money. Credit card transactions are reversible, Bitcoin transactions are not. For this service (among others), credit card companies charge merchants a few percentage points on the transaction.

The problem with this account is that it’s not true: Baked into the Bitcoin protocol, there is support for what are known as “m-of-n” or “multisignature” transactions, transactions that require some number out of some higher number parties to sign off.

The simplest variant is a 2-of-3 transaction. Let’s say that I want to buy goods online from an anonymous counterparty. I transfer money to an address jointly controlled by me, the counterparty, and a third-party arbitrator (maybe even Amex). If I get the goods, they are acceptable, and I am honest, I sign the money away to the seller. The seller also signs, and since 2 out of 3 of us have signed, he receives his money. If there is a problem with the goods or if I am dishonest, I sign the bitcoins back to myself and appeal to the arbitrator. The arbitrator, like a credit card company, will do an investigation, make a ruling, and either agree to transfer the funds back to me or to the merchant; again, 2 of 3 parties must agree to transfer the funds.

This is an escrow service; at no point can the arbitrator abscond with the funds. The arbitrator is paid a market rate in advance for his services, which are offered according to terms agreed upon by all three parties. This is than the equivalent service using credit cards, because credit cards rely on huge network effects and consequently there are only a handful of suppliers of such transaction arbitration. Using Bitcoin, can be an abitrator, including the traditional credit card companies (although they might have to lower their fees). Competition in both terms and fees is likely to result in better discovery of efficient rules for dispute resolution.

While multisignature transactions are not well understood, they are right there in the Bitcoin protocol, as much a valid Bitcoin transaction as any other. So Bitcoin transactions are irreversible; others are reversible, exactly as reversible as credit card transactions are.

Bitrated.com is a new site (announced yesterday on Hacker News ) that facilitates setting up multisignature transactions. Bitcoin client support for multisignature transactions is limited, so the site helps create addresses that conform to the m-of-n specifications. At no point does the site have access to the funds in the multisignature address.

In addition, Bitrated provides a marketplace where people can advertise their arbitration services. Users are able to set up transactions using arbitrators both from the site or from anywhere else. The entire project is open source , so if you want to set up a competing directory, go for it.

What excites me most about the decentralized arbitration afforded by multisignature transactions is that it could be the beginnings of a Common Law for the Internet. The plain, ordinary Common Law developed as the result of competing courts that issued opinions basically as advertisements of how fair and impartial they were. We could see something similar with Bitcoin arbitration. If arbitrators sign their transactions with links to and a cryptographic hash of a PDF that explains why they ruled as they did, we could see real competition in the articulation of rules. Over time, some of these articulations could come to be widely accepted and form a body of Bitcoin precedent. I look forward to reading the subsequent Restatements .

Multisignature transactions are just one of the many innovations buried deep in the Bitcoin protocol that have yet to be widely utilized. As the community matures and makes full use of the protocol, it will become more clear that Bitcoin is not just a currency but a Jewboo S925 Sterling Silver A Cat Is Fishing Simple cat shape Necklace Pendant Gift 1jstbTyu
.

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Children of Armenia Fund (COAF) is a non-profit organization, uses community-led approaches to reduce rural poverty, with a particular focus on youth. Since the inception of its programs in 2004, COAF www.coafkids.org has funded and implemented educational, healthcare, community and economic development programs serving more than 28.000 people in rural villages of Armenia.

In 2015, COAF debuted SMART, an unprecedented model for delivering superior and regionally relevant holistic educational programs in rural areas with an emphasis on technology, sustainability, the arts, health, linguistics, business and civic engagement.

The COAF Smart Center is a pioneering model for delivering superior and regionally-relevant educational, social, economical and community programs in rural areas with an emphasis on technology, sustainability, arts, music, modern healthcare and lifestyle, linguistics and languages, business and civic engagement.

Operating as a state of the art, scalable learning and knowledge exchange hub, SMART will implement COAF programs based on models which have charted success in 22 villages in the Armavir and Aragatsotn regions of Armenia over the past decade.

The SMART concept will allow scalability throughout rural regions. Smart campuses will respect the integrity of rural aesthetics in sync with modern architectural design, maintaining the authenticity of the region, while encouraging progressive ideology. Each campus will utilize sustainable and green design, off the grid components and renewable energy.

The currently under-construction Smart Center building is located in the north Armenian province of Lori. The structure’s organic form embraces the landscape by creating a sinuous ribbon like walkway creating a 7000 m2 courtyard. The one storey building is spread horizontally while following the topography of the site.

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