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By Paul Doherty

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1455, the seamier side of London: pestilence and threats of war (the uncivil kind) between the Houses of York and Lancaster with the throne of England at stake; thugs (called henchmen) who are ruthless cutthroats, yet charming and entertaining; Frenchmen bent on revenge – all this and more author Paul Doherty hurls at the reader in this most unusual, yet absorbing, retelling of the Wars of the Roses from the point of view of the ordinary man, who may occasionally become lawless.

Amadeus Sevigny, henchman for the Yorkists, is bent on getting rid of his Lancastrian counterpart, Simon Roseblood, owner of an influential London inn called the Roseblood, and an important London alderman. Sevigny holds a bitter grudge against Lancastrians since, as a child, his family was cut down before his eyes, and the Duke of York rescued and educated him. Simon Roseblood is for Lancaster because of family tradition, and having gained wealth and prestige through long association. Simon is able to thwart Sevigny’s plans and, when he would exact return violence towards the Yorkists, they go awry when the French terrorist group Le Corbeil intervenes, leaving dead crows as a calling card amongst the bodies. Le Corbeil adds an interesting twist to the novel, refreshing the reader’s memories of the horrific English occupation of France during the Hundred Years’ War – which had only recently ended.

In Roseblood the well-known history makers take a back seat to the common men and women of 15 th -century London, providing a people’s recollection of the Wars of the Roses. This unique storytelling keeps pace with actual historical events, and the author takes the reader closer to the precipice of the thorny Rose wars. The violence can be very graphic in detail, but readers may not be put off by such descriptive narrative. Roseblood is a well-written historical novel with a fast-paced, action-driven plot. Highly recommended.

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Article

Cophylogenetic signal is detectable in pollination interactions across ecological scales

Center for Integrative Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

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Center for Integrative Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

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Center for Integrative Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

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Corresponding Author

E-mail address: daniel.stouffer@canterbury.ac.nz

Corresponding author; e‐mail: E-mail address: daniel.stouffer@canterbury.ac.nz
First published: 22 July 2017
https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1955
Cited by: Engelsrufer Women 925 Sterling Silver Pendant ERP05DROPS 9zLSyvdK

Corresponding Editor: Matthew L. Forister

That evolutionary history can influence the way that species interact is a basic tenet of evolutionary ecology. However, when the role of evolution in determining ecological interactions is investigated, focus typically centers on just one side of the interaction. A cophylogenetic signal, the congruence of evolutionary history across both sides of an ecological interaction, extends these previous explorations and provides a more complete picture of how evolutionary patterns influence the way species interact. To date, cophylogenetic signal has most typically been studied in interactions that occur between fine taxonomic clades that show high intimacy. In this study, we took an alternative approach and made an exhaustive assessment of cophylogeny in pollination interactions. To do so, we assessed the strength of cophylogenetic signal at four distinct scales of pollination interaction: (1) across plant–pollinator associations globally, (2) in local pollination communities, (3) within the modular structure of those communities, and (4) in individual modules. We did so using a globally distributed dataset comprised of 54 pollination networks, over 4000 species, and over 12,000 interactions. Within these data, we detected cophylogenetic signal at all four scales. Cophylogenetic signal was found at the level of plant–pollinator interactions on a global scale and in the majority of pollination communities. At the scale defined by the modular structure within those communities, however, we observed a much weaker cophylogenetic signal. Cophylogenetic signal was detectable in a significant proportion of individual modules and most typically when within‐module phylogenetic diversity was low. In sum, the detection of cophylogenetic signal in pollination interactions across scales provides a new dimension to the story of how past evolution shapes extant pollinator–angiosperm interactions.

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Volume 98 , Issue 10

October 2017

Pages 2640-2652

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by Phil Freeman on 2018/02/11

Introduction

Recently, I've been experimenting with coeffects in PureScript. I'll give an introduction to some of the ideas here, or if you'd like to see the code, you can find it on GitHub .

Given a comonad w , one way of thinking about a value of type w a is as a simulation of a process where, at each step, we can ask for a value of type a which might indicate some portion of the current state. I've written about this intuition for comonads before in my "comonads as spaces" series of blog posts.

From the comonad w , Edward Kmett has shown how to construct a monad Co w . The Co w monad is the most specific monad for which there is a pairing with the comonad w , which I Cat Dog Paw Print Animal 925 Sterling Silver Charms Fit Bracelets Necklace for Mothers Day Gifts from Daughter Son Jewellery 0NzeRQ3P
.

So another way of looking at comonads is as interpreters for the actions of these monads.

Previously, I wrote about how Princess Sapphire and Diamond Silver Tennis Bracelet GOLD NcQGCvHf
, and how, in fact, Day convolution gives the category of comonads over Hask the structure of a (closed) symmetric monoidal category.

It's interesting to think about Day convolution in terms of our intution for comonads as interpreters. There are natural transformations from Co w1 and Co w2 to Co (Day w1 w2) , so the monad constructed from Day w1 w2 supports the operations of both the Co w1 and Co w2 monads.

The EnvT , StoreT and TracedT comonad transformers exhibit a common pattern:

The Co (Cofree f) monad embeds the actions of the Free (Co f) monad. However, the Day (Cofree f) w is not always isomorphic to CofreeT f w .

All of the above leads us to a simple model of "extensible coeffects": simply take a collection of comonads which model the coeffects we are interested in, and use Day convolution to create a new comonad which supports all of the desired coeffects. For many common comonads listed above, taking the Day convolution corresponds to using comonad transformers, and we can even use Co to contruct a monad with which to navigate this new, combined state space. Our new monad will embed the actions of all of the monads we could have constructed from the individual monads, and we could use techniques in the style of Data types à la carte to make this style really "extensible".

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The site of Intramuros was originally a large Malayan-Islamic settlement named "Maynilad", ruled by three chieftains Rajah Sulayman, Lakan Dula and Rajah Matanda. The name came from "may nilad", "nilad" being a water plant whose star-shaped flowers clustered in abundance along the low-lying riverbanks. The strategic location of Maynilad, being on the Pasig River and the Manila Bay, made it an ideal location for indigenous Tagalog tribes to trade with other Asian civilizations, including Chinese and Islamic merchants who had come from China, Borneo and Indonesia. Maynilad was also the seat of power for native chiefs who ruled the area before Europeans first arrived in Luzon.

In 1564, conquistadors led by Miguel López de Legazpi sailed from New Spain (Mexico) and arrived on the island of Cebu in February 13, 1565. There they established the first Spanish colony in the archipelago. Having heard of rich resources of Manila by local natives, López de Legazpi dispatched two of his Lieutenant-commanders, Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo to explore the northern regions of the Visayas.

In 1570, the Spaniards arrived in the island of Luzon. After quarrels had erupted between the Islamic natives and the Spaniards; Goiti and López de Legazpi’s soldiers waged war on the people, before they were able to take control and establish a permanent settlement in the area. In 1571 after the natives were defeated in battle, López de Legazpi made a peace pact with Rajah Sulayman, Rajah Lakandula and Rajah Matanda; who, in return, handed over Manila to the Spaniards.

Citing the rich resources and location of Manila; López de Legazpi declared the area as the new capital of the Spanish colony in the Philippines on June 24, 1571. The King of Spain, delighted at the new conquest achieved by López de Legazpi and his men, awarded the city a coat of arms and declaring it Ciudad Insigne y Siempre Leal ("Distinguished and ever loyal city").

The planning of the city of Manila was commenced by López de Legazpi who had become the first Governor general on the islands. He established forts, roads, churches and schools. The plans for Intramuros were based on King Philip II’s Royal Ordinance issued on July 3, 1573 in San Lorenzo, Spain. It’s design was based upon a medieval castle structure and covered 64 hectares of land, surrounded by 8 metre thick stones and high walls that rise 22 metres.

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